# How Planck Spheres Produce the Electron g-factor

Evidence that the universe is made of Planck spheres has been mounting over the past month. The latest discovery involves a core parameter of the electron known as its g-factor. Here I will briefly review the Planck Spherical Unit (PSU) model and then demonstrate how PSUs produce the electron g-factor.

## PSU Review

We begin with the basic assumption that the universe is composed entirely of spheres (PSUs), each with a radius equal to the Planck length ℓP. …

# The Smallest vs the Most Common Photon

In my previous article, “Protons and Electrons Are Made of Planck Spheres,” I presented evidence for a minimum photon wavelength. Essentially, if an electron has an intrinsic toroidal motion with its Compton wavelength as its circumference, then according to the PSU model, for the Planck spheres on the surface of this torus to have a total mass equal to the electron’s rest mass, its thickness (2πr) must be about 2.0 x 10^-21 m. Because photons are quantized, the wavelength of a photon must therefore be larger than this in order for it to be transmitted by an electron. It turns…

# Protons and Electrons Are Made of Planck Spheres

All atoms are composed of protons and electrons. If the universe consists entirely of Planck spheres (PSUs), each with a radius equal to the Planck length, then 1) the proton is a large composite sphere that equilibrates the PSUs in its volume with the PSUs on its surface, and 2) the electron has a toroidal form that equilibrates the PSUs along its circumference with the PSUs on its surface.

There are 3 physical constants related to Planck units: 1) the speed of light c, which represents a maximum rate of travel, 2) Planck’s constant h (also as h-bar = h/2π)…

# The Case for Planck Spherical Units

Throughout the universe, we find large hot spheres orbited by smaller cooler spheres. These are all composed of atoms that contain protons and neutrons at their center, both of which function as spheres. We’re surrounded by spheres and made of spheres. What if the universe at the most basic level is a vast array of spheres?

The evidence for this is much stronger than you might expect given the total obscurity of such a theory. Let’s begin with 3 fundamental constants of nature. First is the speed of light c, which represents the maximum rate of travel in the universe…

# Thoughts on a Slowing Speed of Light

## Are the spinning spheres that compose the universe always decelerating?

The more distant a galaxy is, the longer the wavelength of light it emits. The most popular explanation for the observed redshift is that galaxies are receding due to an inflationary dark energy, and the further away they are the faster they are moving away from us. Like a train blowing its whistle as it speeds by, the whistle’s pitch is lower when it moves away from us, and the faster it’s moving the lower its pitch (and thus the longer its wavelength). It’s intuitive to apply this same reasoning to the observation of galactic redshift and think that galaxies…

# The Oscillating Planck Spherical Unit

Either there is 1 physical unit that fills space and connects all points within it or there is not. It’s one or the other and nothing in between. Here I’ll make the case that there is and it has intrinsic features that are evident in the atomic particles and the natural structures they form.

In 2012, Nassim Haramein published a paper titled “Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass.” There he defines a theoretical unit called the Planck Spherical Unit (PSU). Its diameter is equal to the Planck length, the singular unit of space derived from combining the fundamental physical constants… 